Saturday, March 14, 2020
The Role of Chief Justice of the United States
The Role of Chief Justice of the United States Often incorrectly called the chief justice of the Supreme Court, the chief justice of the United States is the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s highest-ranking judicial official, and speaking for the judicial branch of the federal government, and serving as the chief administrative officer for the federal courts. In this capacity, the chief justice heads the Judicial Conference of the United States, the chief administrative body of the U.S. federal courts,Ã and appoints the director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. A Chief Justices Main Duties As primary duties, the chief justice presides over oral arguments before the Supreme Court and sets the agenda for the courts meetings. Of course, the chief justice presides over the Supreme Court, which includes eight other members called associate justices. The chief justices vote carries the same weight as those of the associate justices, though the role does require duties that the associate justices dont perform. As such, the chief justice is traditionally paid more than the associate justices. The 2018 annual salary of the chief justice set by Congress, is $267,000, slightly higher than the $255,300 salary of the associate justices. When voting with the majority in a case decided by the Supreme Court, the chief justice may choose to write the Courts opinionÃ or to assign the task to one of the associate justices. History of the Chief Justice Role The office of chief justice is not explicitly established in the U.S. Constitution. While Article I, Section 3, Clause 6 of the Constitution refers to a chief justice as presiding over Senate trials of presidential impeachment.Ã Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution, which establishes the Supreme Court itself, refers to all members of the Court simply as Ã¢â¬Å"judges.Ã¢â¬ The distinct titles of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States were created by the Judiciary Act of 1789. In 1866, Associate Justice Salmon P. Chase, who had been by to the Court by President Abraham Lincoln in 1864, convinced Congress to change the official title Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States to the current Chief Justice of the United States. Chase reasoned that the new title better acknowledged the positionÃ¢â¬â¢s duties within the judicial branch not directly related to the Supreme CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s deliberations. In 1888, Chief Justice of the United States Melville Fuller became the first person to actually hold the modern title. Since 1789, 15 different presidents have made a total of 22 official nominations to either the original or the modern chief justice position. Since the Constitution mandates only that there must be a chief justice, the practice of appointment by the president with the consent of the Senate has been based solely on tradition. The Constitution does not specifically prohibit the use of other methods, as long as the chief justice is selected from among the other sitting justices. Like all federal judges, the chief justice is nominated by the president of the United States and must be confirmed by the Senate. The term-in-office of the chief justice is set by Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution, which states that all federal judges shall hold their offices during good behavior, meaning that chief justices serve for life, unless they die, resign, or are removed from office through the impeachment process. Presiding Over Impeachments and Inaugurations The chief justice sits as the judge inÃ impeachmentsÃ of the president of the United States,Ã including when the viceÃ president of the United StatesÃ is the acting president. Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase presided over the Senate trial of PresidentÃ Andrew JohnsonÃ in 1868, and Chief JusticeÃ William H. RehnquistÃ presided over the trial of President William Clinton in 1999. While its thought the chief justice must swear in Ã¢â¬â¹presidents at inaugurations, this is a purely traditional role. According to law, any federal or state judge is empowered to administer oaths of office, and even a notary public can perform the duty, as was the case when Calvin Coolidge was sworn in as president in 1923. Procedure and Reporting and Inaugurations In day-to-day proceedings, the chief justice enters the courtroom first and casts the first vote when the justices deliberate, and also presides over closed-door conferences of the court in which votes are cast on pending appeals and cases heard in oral argument. Outside the courtroom, the chief justice writes an annual report to Congress about the state of the federal court system and appoints other federal judges to serve on various administrative and judicial panels. The chief justice also serves as chancellor of the Smithsonian InstitutionÃ and sits on the boards of the National Gallery of Art and the Hirshhorn Museum.